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常用短语精解
编辑:北京译海腾飞翻译公司   发布时间:2012-05-13
1.to get on : (to enter, board) 
【说明:】to get on(搭乘,上车) 动词get的用法很多,常常在后面接用各种不同的介系词或副词而形成意义不同的习语。这里的on是介系词,后面的bus和subway用作它的受词。如果on作副词用,则有进步,相处甚好,与年事已长的意思。 

【例:】 

(1) I always get on the bus at 34th Street. 
我总是在34街搭乘公共汽车。 

(2) William gets on the subway at the same station every morning. 
威廉每天早晨在同一车站搭乘地下火车。 

2.to get off : (to leave, descend from) 

说明:】to get off (下车)与上面的get on相反。Get off也有好些其它的意义,如寄出,离开等。下车也可以用alight from或get out of a carriage或motor car, 不过下电车或公共汽车多用get off . 

【例:】 

(1) Helen got off the bus at 42nd Street. 
海伦在42街下公共汽车。 

(2) At what station do you usually get off the subway? 
你通常在那一站下地下火车? 


3.to put on: (to place on oneself-said particularly of clothes) 

【说明:】 
to put on (穿,戴)特别指穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽、戴眼镜也用这个成语。英文中还有wear和dress二字也是穿的意思。可是wear是继续的动作,表示穿着的状态,而put on是一时的动作。下面两个句子都是错的: 
I shall wear my overcoat before I go out (应用put on). In such cold weather I put on my overcoat all day (应用wear).dress的意思是 
①put clothes on后面的受词一定是人,如dress a child, dress oneself, be dressed in white, 
②put on clothes, vk Get up and dress quickly. (快点起来穿好衣服。) 

【例:】 
(1) Mary put on her hat and left the room. 

玛丽戴上她的帽子就离开这屋子。 

(2) Why is John putting on his hat and coat? 

约翰为什么穿衣戴帽呢? 

4.to take off : (to remove-said also of clothes) 

【说明:】to take off (脱去)与put on 的意义相反,指脱去衣物鞋帽.民可以用put off, 但较不通用。 

【例:】 

(1) John took off his hat as he entered the room. 

约翰在这屋时脱下他的帽子。 

(2) Is Helen taking off her coat because it is too warm in the room? 

海伦是不是因为室内太暖和而脱去她的外衣呢? 


5.to call up: (to telephone) 

【说明:】to call up (打电话给……)后面一定要有受词,也就是接电话的人。如果受词是代名词的话,常插在call与up 之间。 

【例:】 

(1) I forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday although I promised to call him up exactly at three o’clock. 

我昨天忘记打电话给钟斯先生,虽然我答应了在三点钟的时候打电话给他的。 

(2) Did anyone call me up while I was out? 

我出去的时候有人打电话来找我吗? 

6.to turn on : (to start, begin) 

【说明:】to turn on (扭开,打开)指扭开电灯,电炉,电扇,煤气等的按钮或开关,以及自来水的水龙头等而言。开电灯也可以用put on the light. 

【例:】 

(1) Please turn on the light. This room is dark. 

请你扭开电灯,这房间太黑暗了。 

(2) Someone turned on the radiator in this room while we were out. 

我们外出时,有人把房内的电炉扭开了。 


7.to turn off : (to stop, terminate extinguish) 

【说明:】 
to turn off (关闭,停止)指扭熄电灯,关闭无线电、自来水等。关灯也可以用put out the light. 

【例:】 
(1) Please turn off the light. We do not need it now. 

请把电灯关了,我们现在不需要它。 

(2) Shall I turn off the radio or are you still listening to it? 

我可以把收音机关掉吗,你是不是还要收听呢? 

8.right away : (immediately, at once, very soon) 

【说明:】right away (立刻,马上)为美国口头语,没有immediately与at once正式, 系一副词片语,与right now (exactly now )的意思相仿。 

【例:】 

(1) She says that dinner will be ready right away. 

她说晚餐马上就准备好了。 

(2) Can William come to my office right away? 

威廉能够立刻就到我的办公室来吗? 

9.to pick up : (to take-especially with fingers) 

【说明:】to pick up (拾起,拣起)尤指用手指把东西拿起业而言。To pick up还有很多其它的用法。如 

①让人搭便车: 

The motorist picked up a couple of servicemen along the highway 

(这个乘汽车的人在公路上让两个军人搭乘便车。) 

②听会,自然学会,(言语,游戏等): 

He never studied French; what he knows he picked up while living in France. 

(他从来没有学过法文;他所知道的是他住在法国的时候听会的。) 

③捉住,逮捕,萍水相逢便行订交,选出: 

I picked up London lastnight. 

(昨晚我在无线电听到了伦敦的播音。) 

【例:】 

(1) John Picked up the newspaper which was on his desk. 

约翰把书桌上的报纸拿了起来。 

(2) Why didn’t you pick up that pencil which lay on the floor? 

你为什么不把地板上的那枝铅笔拾起来呢? 


10.at once: (immediately, very soon, right away) 

【说明:】 

at once (立刻,马上)为一级通用的副词片语,也可以作为同时(simultaneously)解,如 

This book is at once interesting and instructive. 

(此书既有趣又有益。) 

【例:】 

(1) He asked me to come to his office at once. 

他请我立刻就到他的办公室去。 

(2) I want you to send this telegram at once. 

我希望你马上把这电报发出去。