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怎样练习外语听力

 

怎么练听力?比如说听VOA和BBC,看看英文电影,听写新闻,听脱口秀,听名人演讲,...不一而足,这些方法有用吗?有。任何一种方法只要付出了时间和努力肯定能够取得进步,但我们要考虑的还有另一点:它是一种高效的方法吗?答案就见仁见智了。
是不是只要每天听,拼命听,把自己“沉浸”在英语环境中听力就会自然而然变好呢?并不是这么简单。听力训练中有一条最浅显但也最容易被人忽略的原则是:你最多只能听懂你读得懂的东西。这句话包含了三层意思:
提高听力最关键的地方并不在于你听了多少东西,而是在于你的阅读基础(包括词汇量,语法基础),阅读基础越好,能看得懂的东西越多,听力过程也会越顺畅。 听力训练的目标是努力听懂能读得懂的东西,听懂该听懂的,对于读不懂的东西,只能通过提高词汇量来解决。 要根据自己的实际水平(可以大致等同于词汇量水平)选择合适的听力材料
比如,很多人一提到练听力就说要去听VOA和BBC,但事实上对大多数人来说,这并不是一种好方法。为什么?看个例子,有一段VOA常速听力文本,现在请你一口气把它读完,中间不能回头:
The U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry cited North Korea’s recent submarine-launched ballistic missile test as the latest example of North Korea’s continued pursuit of offensive and nuclear weapons in violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions.And he described Kim Jong Un as "grotesque and grisly" for reportedly ordering the public execution of his highest- ranking defense minister Hyon Yong Chol with an anti-aircraft gun.
"Which makes his leadership one of the most egregious examples of reckless disregard for human rights and human beings anywhere on the planet," Kerry noted. Pyongyang has grown increasingly isolated since it walked away from a 2005 deal with China, Japan, Russia, South Korea and the United States to end its nuclear program in return for economic aid and assistance.
好,现在问自己几个问题:你读懂这段听力材料了吗?中间碰到了多少生词?如果是实际听力的话有多少单词可能会反应不过来? 如果这段材料你无法读懂的话,那么听上100遍也没用,该听不懂的地方一定不会让你听懂的。
事实上,VOA(常速)和BBC对初学者来说并不是一种友好的听力材料,要比较顺畅地舒服地听懂它们词汇量少说也要在12000以上。不考虑学习者实际水平就推荐材料的行为,其实都是误人子弟。
听力训练中并没有捷径,不要迷信,也不要盲从,一定要根据自己的实际情况去选择适合自己的材料。
具体来说,选择听力材料时要考虑你的词汇量水平,在选听力材料时可以先读一读它的文本,确定一下难度,比如说对于下面这段听力材料: Massive corruption charges in the world of international soccer. U.S. prosecutors say some officials with FIFA, the group that governs soccer worldwide, have accepted more than $150 million in bribes over the past 24 years. American officials say bribes influence which countries got to host the World Cup, who could televise soccer games and where they`d be held.
They were expected to uphold the rules that keep soccer honest and to protect the integrity of the game. Instead, they corrupted the business of worldwide soccer to serve their interest and to enrich themselves. This Department of Justice is determined to end these practices, to root out corruption and to bring wrongdoers to justice.
对很多人来说,上面的这段才是“友好”的材料,难度适中,生词量适中,是比较合适的听力训练材料。
我们可以粗略把目前市面上的听力材料按难度进行划分,初阶的材料有新概念英语2,VOA慢速英语,高中英语听力教材,高级的材料则有V0A常速,BBC,CNN,新概念4,经济学人,原版有声书等。初阶和高阶的材料都比较丰富,问题可能会出在中级阶段上。

你可能现在就处于“听VOA慢速觉得太简单但听VOA常速又听不懂”这个节点上。我把它叫做中级向高级的提升瓶颈期,只要能够跨过这个瓶颈期,后面就好受多了。