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常用短语精解

常用短语精解

1.to get on : (to enter, board)
【说明:】to get on(搭乘,上车) 动词get的用法很多,常常在后面接用各种不同的介系词或副词而形成意义不同的习语。这里的on是介系词,后面的bus和subway用作它的受词。如果on作副词用,则有进步,相处甚好,与年事已长的意思。

【例:】

(1) I always get on the bus at 34th Street.
我总是在34街搭乘公共汽车。

(2) William gets on the subway at the same station every morning.
威廉每天早晨在同一车站搭乘地下火车。

2.to get off : (to leave, descend from)

说明:】to get off (下车)与上面的get on相反。Get off也有好些其它的意义,如寄出,离开等。下车也可以用alight from或get out of a carriage或motor car, 不过下电车或公共汽车多用get off .

【例:】

(1) Helen got off the bus at 42nd Street.
海伦在42街下公共汽车。

(2) At what station do you usually get off the subway?
你通常在那一站下地下火车?


3.to put on: (to place on oneself-said particularly of clothes)

【说明:】
to put on (穿,戴)特别指穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽、戴眼镜也用这个成语。英文中还有wear和dress二字也是穿的意思。可是wear是继续的动作,表示穿着的状态,而put on是一时的动作。下面两个句子都是错的:
I shall wear my overcoat before I go out (应用put on). In such cold weather I put on my overcoat all day (应用wear).dress的意思是
①put clothes on后面的受词一定是人,如dress a child, dress oneself, be dressed in white,
②put on clothes, vk Get up and dress quickly. (快点起来穿好衣服。)

【例:】
(1) Mary put on her hat and left the room.

玛丽戴上她的帽子就离开这屋子。

(2) Why is John putting on his hat and coat?

约翰为什么穿衣戴帽呢?

4.to take off : (to remove-said also of clothes)

【说明:】to take off (脱去)与put on 的意义相反,指脱去衣物鞋帽.民可以用put off, 但较不通用。

【例:】

(1) John took off his hat as he entered the room.

约翰在这屋时脱下他的帽子。

(2) Is Helen taking off her coat because it is too warm in the room?

海伦是不是因为室内太暖和而脱去她的外衣呢?


5.to call up: (to telephone)

【说明:】to call up (打电话给……)后面一定要有受词,也就是接电话的人。如果受词是代名词的话,常插在call与up 之间。

【例:】

(1) I forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday although I promised to call him up exactly at three o’clock.

我昨天忘记打电话给钟斯先生,虽然我答应了在三点钟的时候打电话给他的。

(2) Did anyone call me up while I was out?

我出去的时候有人打电话来找我吗?

6.to turn on : (to start, begin)

【说明:】to turn on (扭开,打开)指扭开电灯,电炉,电扇,煤气等的按钮或开关,以及自来水的水龙头等而言。开电灯也可以用put on the light.

【例:】

(1) Please turn on the light. This room is dark.

请你扭开电灯,这房间太黑暗了。

(2) Someone turned on the radiator in this room while we were out.

我们外出时,有人把房内的电炉扭开了。


7.to turn off : (to stop, terminate extinguish)

【说明:】
to turn off (关闭,停止)指扭熄电灯,关闭无线电、自来水等。关灯也可以用put out the light.

【例:】
(1) Please turn off the light. We do not need it now.

请把电灯关了,我们现在不需要它。

(2) Shall I turn off the radio or are you still listening to it?

我可以把收音机关掉吗,你是不是还要收听呢?

8.right away : (immediately, at once, very soon)

【说明:】right away (立刻,马上)为美国口头语,没有immediately与at once正式, 系一副词片语,与right now (exactly now )的意思相仿。

【例:】

(1) She says that dinner will be ready right away.

她说晚餐马上就准备好了。

(2) Can William come to my office right away?

威廉能够立刻就到我的办公室来吗?

9.to pick up : (to take-especially with fingers)

【说明:】to pick up (拾起,拣起)尤指用手指把东西拿起业而言。To pick up还有很多其它的用法。如

①让人搭便车:

The motorist picked up a couple of servicemen along the highway

(这个乘汽车的人在公路上让两个军人搭乘便车。)

②听会,自然学会,(言语,游戏等):

He never studied French; what he knows he picked up while living in France.

(他从来没有学过法文;他所知道的是他住在法国的时候听会的。)

③捉住,逮捕,萍水相逢便行订交,选出:

I picked up London lastnight.

(昨晚我在无线电听到了伦敦的播音。)

【例:】

(1) John Picked up the newspaper which was on his desk.

约翰把书桌上的报纸拿了起来。

(2) Why didn’t you pick up that pencil which lay on the floor?

你为什么不把地板上的那枝铅笔拾起来呢?


10.at once: (immediately, very soon, right away)

【说明:】

at once (立刻,马上)为一级通用的副词片语,也可以作为同时(simultaneously)解,如

This book is at once interesting and instructive.

(此书既有趣又有益。)

【例:】

(1) He asked me to come to his office at once.

他请我立刻就到他的办公室去。

(2) I want you to send this telegram at once.

我希望你马上把这电报发出去。