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医学英语--常用临床医学术语

常用临床医学术语

diseases 疾病
acute diseases 急性病
advanced diseases 病沉重期,晚期疾病
chronic diseases慢性病
communicable diseases 传染病
complicating diseases 并发病
congenital diseases 先天性疾病
acquired diseases 后天性疾病
contagious diseases接触性传染病
endemic diseases 地方病
epidemic diseases 流行病
functional diseases 机能病、官能病
infectious diseases 传染病
inherited diseases 遗传病
malignant diseases恶性病
nutritional diseases 营养病
occupation diseases 职业病
organic diseases 器质性病
paroxysmal diseases 阵发性病
periodical diseases 周期病
primary(principal)diseases原发(主导)病
secondary diseases 继发病
sexual(venereal, social)diseases 性病
terminal diseases 绝症
wasting diseases 消耗性疾病

chief complaint 主诉
clinical manifestation 临床表现
delivery history 分娩史
etiology病因学
family history 家族史
history, medical history 病史
precipitating(induced)诱因
marital status婚姻状况
menstrual history 月经史
menarche 初潮
menopause闭经
past history既往史
pathogenesis 发病机制
personal history 个人史

symptoms 症状
cardinal symptom 主要症状
classical symptom 典型症状
concomitant symptom 伴发症状
constitutional(systemic) symptom 全身症状
indirect symptom 间接症状
induced symptom 诱发症状
local symptom 局部症状
mental symptom精神症状
symptom-complex (syndrome)symptom 综合症,症候群
signs体征
antecedent 前驱征
assident (accessory) 副征
commemorative 后遗症
sign of death 死征
diagnostic诊断征
sign of disease 病征
subjective 自觉征,主观征
vein sign静脉征

vital sign 生命体征
body length (height of the body) 身高
body weight 体重
barrel chest 桶状胸
cachexia 恶病质
compulsive position 被动体位
critical facies 病危面容
emaciation 消瘦
enophthalmos 眼球下陷
entropion 睑内翻
exophthalmos 眼球突出
flushed face 面色潮红
gain (loss) in weight 增加(减轻)体重
lock-jaw 牙关紧闭
lordosis 脊柱前凸
nasal ala flap 鼻翼扇动
nystagmus 眼震
obesity 肥胖
pallor 苍白
scolisis 脊柱侧凸
agitation 焦急不安
debility, weakness 虚弱
diaphoresis 出汗,大量出汗
dizziness, vertigo 眩晕
lassitude, fatigue 无力,倦怠
malaise 不适
night sweat 盗汗
numbness 麻木
rigor, chill 寒冷,发冷
perspiration, sweating 出汗
pruritus, itching 痒,
somasthenia 躯体无力
tingling 麻刺感

abscess 脓肿
acidosis 酸中毒
adhesion 粘连
alkalosis 碱中毒
allergy 过敏
coagulation defect 凝血不良
congestion 充血
dehydration 脱水
distention 膨胀
edema 水肿
embolism 栓塞,栓塞形成
fluid and electrolyte imbalance 水电解质紊乱
gangrene 坏疽
hematoma 血肿
hemorrhage, bleeding 出血
infarction 梗塞,梗死
infection 传染
inflammation 炎症
ketoacidosis 酮酸中毒
metastasis 转移
perforation 穿孔
necrosis 坏死
shock 休克
response 反应,应答
reaction 反应,感应
thrombosis 血栓形成
ulceration 溃疡

fever, pyrexia 发烧,发热
continuous fever 稽留热
intermittent fever 间歇热
low-grade fever 低热
remittent fever 驰张热
relapsing fever 回归热

pain 痛
burning pain 灼痛
chest(flank,…) pain 胸(胁腹…)痛
cramp-like pain 痉挛性痛
dull, diffused pain 弥漫性钝痛
pleuritic pain 胸膜炎性痛
radiating pain (pain radiating to…) 放射性痛(放射到…疼痛)angina 绞痛
cardiac angina 心绞痛
backache 背痛
colic 绞痛,急腹痛
earache 耳痛
headache 头痛
neuralgia 神经痛
migraine 偏头痛
rebound tenderness 反跳痛
somatalgia 躯体痛
sore throat 咽喉痛
stomachache 胃痛
toothache 牙痛
bloody sputum 带血的痰
cough 咳嗽
dry cough 干咳
expectoration 咳痰
expectoration of blood 咳血
hemoptysis 咳血

anoxia 缺氧
apnea 呼吸暂停,窒息
asthma 气喘,哮喘
Cheyne Stokes respiration 切-斯氏呼吸,潮式呼吸
dyspnea 呼吸困难
hyperpnea hyperventilation 过度呼吸,换气过度
hypopnea 呼吸不全, 呼吸浅表
hypoxia 低氧,缺氧
orthopnea 端坐呼吸
respiratory arrest 呼吸停止
suffocation 窒息
tachypnea 呼吸急促
fetid breath 口臭
fruity breath 呼吸有水果味

arrhythmia 心律失常,心律不齐
atelectasis 肺不张,肺膨胀不全
cardiac arrest 心搏骤停
cardiac hypertrophy 心脏肥大
cyanosis 发绀,青紫
distension of jugular vein 颈静脉怒张
extrasystole 期外收缩
gallop rhythm 奔马律
hemopleura 血胸
hepatojugular reflux 肝颈静脉回流
hypovolemia (循环)血容量减少
palpitation 心悸
tachycardia 心动过速
pneumothorax 气胸
thrill 震颤
absent breath sounds 呼吸音消失
dull sound 浊音
hyperresonant 鼓音
rale 啰音
rhonchus, rhonchi 鼾音,干啰音
wheeze 哮鸣音

anorexia, loss of appetite 食欲不振,厌食
dysphagia 吞咽困难
eructation 嗳气
belching 嗳气
flatulence 气胀
flatus 肠胃气,屁
gaseous distention 胃胀气
hematemesis 呕血
hiccough, hiccup 打呃,呃逆
nausea 恶心
pyrosis 胃灼热
regurgitation 反胃,回流
thirsty 口渴
vomiting 呕吐
anal fissure, crack in the anal canal 肛裂
ascites 腹水
board-like rigidity of the abdomen 板状腹
decreased tactile fremitus 触觉性震颤减弱
exophageal varices 食管静脉曲张
fistula 瘘,瘘管
hemorrhoid 痔
hernia 疝
hepatomegaly 肝肿大
intussusception 肠套叠
jaundice 黄疸
muscle guarding, defence of the abdominal wall 腹壁肌卫
peristalsis 蠕动
loss of peristalsis 蠕动消失
mass peristalsis 总蠕动
retrograde (reversed) peristalsis 逆蠕动
prolapse 脱垂
prolapse of anus 脱肛
rectal prolapse 直肠脱垂,脱肛
volvulus 肠扭转

calculus 结石, 石
biliary calculus 胆结石
vesical calculus 膀胱结石

constipation 便秘
defecation 排便
diarrhea 腹泻
incontinence of feces 大便失禁
hematochezia 便血
fecal impaction 大便嵌塞
occult blood 潜血
painful straining with defecation 排便痛性牵动
clay colored stools 陶土色便
dark, granular/coffee ground emesis 咖啡样呕吐物
fecal vomiting, stercoraceous vomiting 呕粪,吐粪
foul fatty stools, steatorrhea 恶臭脂肪便,脂肪痢
scanty and hard stools 便少而硬
tarry (black) stools 柏油样便

anuria 无尿
burning sensation no urination 排尿时的灼烧感
dysurea 排尿困难,尿痛
enuresis, bed wetting 遗尿
frequency of urination 尿频
micturation 排尿
uresis, urination, voiding 排尿
nocturia 夜尿
oliguria 少尿
polyuria 多尿
tenesmus 里急后重
vesical tenesmus 排尿时里急后重
uremia coma 尿毒症昏迷
urgency of urination 尿急
urinary incontinence 尿失禁

aciduria 酸尿
chyluria 乳糜尿
cylindruia 管型尿
glycosuria 糖尿
hematuria 血尿
ketonuria 酮尿
pneumatinuria 气尿
proteinuria 蛋白尿
pyuria 脓尿

amenorrhea 经闭,无月经
dysmenorrhea 痛经
menorrhagia 月经过多
lochia 恶露
menorrhea 行经,月经过多
menstruation 月经
uterine contraction 子宫收缩

blotch 斑点
bruise 挫伤,青肿
acne 痤疮,粉刺
desquamation 脱皮,脱屑
ecchymosis 瘀斑
loss of skin turgor 失去皮肤充盈
nevus 痣
papule 丘疹
petechia 瘀点,瘀斑
pigmentation 色素沉着
pustule 脓疱
purpura 紫癫
red nodule 红结节
roseola 玫瑰疹
scar 伤疤
senile plaque 老人斑
spider anaioma 蛛形痣
subcutaneous nodule 皮下结节
urticaria 荨麻疹
vesicle 小水疱
vitiligo 白斑

blindness 失明
blurred vision, visual disturbance 视力模糊
impaired vision 视力下降
lacrimation 流泪
papilledema 视神经乳头水肿
photophobia 畏光,羞明
retinal detachment 视网膜脱离

deafness 聋
hearing loss 听力丧失
tinnitus 耳鸣
epistaxis, nasal bleeding 鼻出血
impaired smelling 嗅觉障碍
nasal discharge 鼻涕
nasal obstruction 鼻塞
sneeze 喷嚏
snore 打鼾
aphonia, loss of voice 失音症
hoarseness 嘶哑
gum bleeding 齿龈出血
herpes labialis 唇疱疹,感冒疮
Koplik’s spots 科普利克斑
lead line of the gum 龈铅线
salivation, drooling 流口水
straw-berry tongue 草莓舌
tremulous tongue 舌震颤

atrophy 萎缩
contracture 挛缩
deformity 畸形,变形
dislocation 脱位
fracture 骨折
closed (simple)fracture 无创骨折,单纯性骨折
comminuted fracture 粉碎性骨折
compound fracture 哆开(开放性)骨折
knock-knee 膝外翻
opisthotonos 角弓反张
prosthesis 假体
spasm 痉挛
tetany (肌)强直,手足抽搦
wrist drop 腕下垂

aphasia 失语
ataxia 共济失调
coma 昏迷
consciousness 知觉,意识
convulsion 抽搐,惊厥
delirium 谵妄
delusion 妄想
faint 昏厥
hallucination 幻觉
hemiplegia 偏瘫
increased intracranial pressure 颅内压增高
insanity 精神错乱
loss of orientation 定向丧失
mania 躁狂
memory defects, amnesia 记忆缺损,遗忘症
paraplegia 截瘫,下身麻痹
projectile vomiting 喷射性呕吐
somnolence, (lethargy) 昏睡,嗜睡
stupor 木僵,昏呆
tetraplegia 四肢瘫痪
unconsciousness 失去知觉
yawning 打哈欠

crisis 危象
cerebral (febrile, hematic, hemolytic,hypertensive, thyrotoxic, ...) crisis
脑(热、血性、溶血、高血压、甲状腺中毒…)危象
failure 衰竭,故障
central (circulatory, cardiac, myocardiac, peripheral, congestive, renal, respiratory) failure
中枢(循环、心力、心肌、周围循环、充血性、肾、呼吸…)衰竭

diagnosis诊断
auscultation 听诊
inspection 视诊
palpation触诊
percussion 叩诊
laboratory examination 实验室检查
physical examination 体格检查
rectal (vaginal) touch 直肠(阴道)指诊
impression 印象
tentative diagnosis 暂定诊断
differential diagnosis 鉴别诊断
final diagnosis 最后诊断
prognosis 预后
prescription 处方
incubation (latent) period 潜伏期
prodromal stage 前驱期
incipient stage 初期
quiescent stage 静止期
alleviation 减轻,缓和
remission 缓解
attack 发作
convalescence (recovery) stage 恢复期
rehabilitation 康复
relapse 复发
sudden death 猝死
moribund 濒死的
course of the disease 病程
course of the treatment 疗程
indication 适应症,指征
complication 并发症
contraindication 禁忌症
side-effect 副作用
sequel (sequela), after effect 后遗症


therapies 治疗方法
acupuncture therapy 针刺疗法
block therapy 封闭疗法
chemical therpy (chemo-therapy) 化学疗法
combined therapy 综合疗法
conservative therapy 保守疗法
constitutional therapy 全身疗法
dietetic therapy 饮食疗法
operative treatment 手术疗法
palliative treatment, alleviative treatment 姑息疗法
physical therapy 物理疗法
psychotherapy 精神疗法
radical treatment 根治
radio-therapy 放射性疗法
supporting treatment 支持疗法
symptomatic treatment对症疗法
cardiac massage 心脏按摩
cardiac pacing 心脏起博
electrotherapy 电疗法
electroshock treatment 电休克疗法
hemodialysis 血液透析
hyperbaric therapy 高压氧疗法
insulin-shock treatment 胰岛素休克疗法
light therapy 光疗法
therapeutic gymnastics 医疗体育